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Origin of religion in social theories

Origin of religion in social theories/ The social theory of the origin of religion: The word religion is one of the world’s most well-known and studied words. At the beginning of the discussion or thought about religion, a question arises in mind – what is religion? 

There is a difference between the promoters of religion and the sociologists in the definition of religion. The promoters of religion have presented religion as a very sacred and absolute doctrine or way of life. And sociologists have judged the definition of religion, nature, and ritual activity by the criteria of impersonality.

The gurus or the promoters of religion have placed religion in a place to enter; one has to be very ritualistic and believe in some basic things. 

What is religion ?

Before defining religion in bold, it is necessary to talk about the religious qualities of persons and objects. Each object has its own characteristics, such as rolling properties of liquid, burning properties of fire, properties of air homelessness. These properties are the absolute qualities of the object. 

This quality was there a thousand years ago, and it will be there a thousand years later. There is no way to isolate. We can also notice some characteristics of such people or Homo sapiens. We again divided human characteristics into two parts. Physical and human. Physical features like sight, hearing, taste, etc., and human characteristics like belief, behavior, etc., are not seen among lower-class animals. Human characteristics are later defined and propagated as religion.

Although the history of human history is 5000 years old, historical and ethnic people have seen some rituals in the era of their previous people during the study and research, and the people of the previous people. Many social religions have given many definitions. Among them, the definition of French Socialist Emile Durkheim (Émile Durkheim) is special.

“A Religion is a Unified System of Beliefs And Practices Relative to Relative To Sacred Things … Beliefs And Practices Which Unite Into A Single Moral Community…. All Those WHO ADHERE TO THEM.”

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Religion is the overall system associated with the sacred object and the overall system of practice that creates a moral community with believers.

Durkheim’s definition of religion is classical and extensive. In many traditional religions (such as Buddhism, Confucianism,.), belief in God or any omnipotent being is not accepted. Yet, some sacred and absolute things are believed. Therefore, Durkheim’s use of the word sacred fits the definition. He has drawn a sharp line between the sacred and the folk. Religion is sacred in the society in the past life—the origin of religion in social theories.

Origin of religion in social theories
They have equated sleep and death in omniscience.

The social theory of the origin of religion

There are many theories about the origin of religion or sacred beliefs. Anthropologists have given theories about the origin of religion after observing many societies and their cultures. Popular doctrines are Tyler’s omniscience, Maret’s pre-omniscience, Durkheim’s pragmatist theory, Marxist theory, and so on. The social theory of the origin of religion.

Animism or Animism

The most important entity in animism is the ‘soul.’ The Bengali translation of Animas Latin word is Atma. The word animism originates from the Latin ‘anima.’ British anthropologist and researcher Edward Barnett Tyler (EB Tylor) is a proponent of animism. According to him, religion originated from the belief in the spirit or anima of primitive man.

We base the concept of the human soul on two experiences, or consciousness. The experience of one dream is the consciousness of another death. In that age, people believed that there is an essence or soul inside every object and material being, which is absolute, and the soul is always moving. People give importance to the dreams seen in their sleep, and the soul has directly taken part in the events seen in the dreams. It also imposed spiritualism on inanimate and inanimate beings. I imagine every movable and immovable being of nature as being subjective. Origin of religion in social theories

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People equate sleep and death. After death, they released the soul as a free soul or as a ghost and return to the post-men, with whom one way to meet is the dream. Anthropology largely reflects the theological concepts of indigenous peoples. Tyler thinks that the idea of ​​nature worship and monotheism came later from the concept of animism. The origin of the concepts of life after death, the concept of heaven and hell, the reckoning of sin and virtue, the torment of the grave, reincarnation, etc., hide in omniscience. Many indigenous peoples and civilized people still believe in animism. The social theory of the origin of religion

Some Hindus still perform tree worship (Tulsi tree worship, banyan tree worship) and animal worship (worship of snake goddess Manasa, praise of Durga Baban Singh). Although there is no definitive and solid evidence for Tyler’s omnipresence, most sociologists have acknowledged that this is the most spiritual of the origins of religion.

Pre-animism or Animatism

Although there are some conscious similarities between animism or animatism, there are considerable differences. In 1900, 29 years after Sir Tyler’s theory of animism, another British anthropologist, Robert Marriott, presented another theory on the origin of religion. They called this pre-animism or pre-animism.

Mr. Maret, while researching Melanesian theology, noticed that primitive man believed in a supernatural, impersonal force before gaining the concept of soul or anima. It identified the man of the age as an impersonal force above the ghost, the soul-spirit. They named this power ‘ mana’ or ‘ mana. ‘ They believed it was a force above all things, plants, and animals. We can achieve the impossible by holding it. The indestructible power of men and women that anyone could coax him to hold and transmit it to the other possibility was.

Primitive people feared devotion and rely on that mana. Manas originates from the word mana, which is another name for Animatism. Animatism in Bengali is synonymous with Mahapranabad. According to Maret, the idea of ​​obedience and gaining faith was the highest pursuit of primitive man’s spiritual pursuits or collective sacred thought. The evolution of human thought and belief begins with animation. In time, monotheism and polytheism were born.

Kriyabadi theory or Functionalism

The French sociologist Emile Durkheim has explained the origin of religion in the light of action theory. He says religion has maintained social unity and solidarity. The origin of religion is to create awareness and fear about discipline and guilt in human life. 

He came to this conclusion considering the background and history of the origin of the world’s famous religions and a comparative analysis of human history. He added that the chaotic society “, those which emphasized its” kind of out of state to lead a methodical and balanced society was only one way cosmic, supernatural power of the Holy and the introduction to each of which a group believed to be living in the society, and some Strictly follow the instructions. Origin of religion in social theories.

Religion takes on a more tangible form through the observance of rituals by believers. According to Durkheim, religion basically performs four functions. The social theory of the origin of religion.

  • Provides discipline
  • Strengthens interpersonal relationships
  • Preserves and reproduces social heritage
  • Gives spirits

This doctrine concerning the origin of the religion of Durkheim is straightforward and fluid. In this doctrine, we can also notice the tendency to look at spiritual consciousness from a materialist perspective. 

Marxist theory or Marxism

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels saw religion as a tool of the exploiting class, which they used to perpetuate social inequality. Marx and Engels have interpreted religion as one of the other five aspects of society. They forbade us to despise the life of the world for the sake of divinity or the afterlife. In Marx’s words, Origin of religion in social theories.

Religion is the impotence of the human mind to deal with the occurrences we cannot understand it.”

Religion is one of the weakest aspects of the human mind that enlightens the human mind by explaining the supernatural. ”

According to Marx, economics is the material basis of human history. People’s need for food, clothing, and shelter is important before philosophy, art, and literature. People create resources to meet material needs. From wealth gradually, the state, society, policy, ideology, religion, theory, etc., are born. The bottom line is that other aspects of human society stand on top of the economic infrastructure.

As Marx and Engels saw, religion emerged as a consolation for the environmental disability around man and the salvation from it. They are their ‘capital,’ ‘ anti- during,’ ‘ Ludwig Feuerbach,’ ‘ the end of classical German philosophy. ‘He has proved in other writings that the origin of religion is from the helplessness of the people of primitive society to fight with nature.

 People believe in a supernatural force from the inability or helplessness of protest against the exploitation of the rulers, lords, feudal lords, and monarchs in the slave, feudal, capitalist, and orientalist stages of the group society. The exploited group believed in a life after death where the gurus preached eternal happiness. And in this way, it established religion as a sound doctrine in society.

Marx’s most common statement about religion is:

“Religion is…

the sigh of the oppressed creatures,

the sentiment of a heartless world.

and the soul of the soulless conditions.

It is the opium of the people.”

In Bengali, “Religious grief expresses genuine grief and protest against genuine grief. Religion is the sigh of an oppressed being, the heart of a heartless world, the imaginary soul of a soulless world environment. Religion is opium for the people. ”

Marx’s critics and fanatics use only the last line to express Marx’s views on religion. But reading the complete statement makes Marx’s religious point of view clearer. Marxism has always dominated science. What is rational from a scientific point of view is acceptable. It does not base Marxism on illusions or irrational beliefs. Just as Marx predicted a utopian society without class discrimination, so he predicted the emergence of a rational and scientific society with the end of illusory beliefs and fantasies. Marxists believe that as society progresses, so will the importance of religion.

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